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音吉を取り巻く人々図式(PDF)

音吉を取り巻く人々

日本人 宣教師
官僚・武士・外交官 商人・会社
■ ハドソンズ・ベイ・カンパニー(英)
 ハドソンズ湾会社は、1670年5月2日、ロンドンで設立され、ハドソン湾南岸のヨーク・ファクトリーに拠点を持つ、イギリスの毛皮交易会社であった。当時イギリスのビーバーは捕りつくされ、北米に良質の資源を求め進出したのだ。この会社は驚くことに、1957年まで毛皮交易も行い、現在もカナダで大規模に小売流通業を営む、北米で最古の会社である。
  1832年10月に漂流した宝順丸の3人、岩吉、久吉、音吉は1834年1月、ワシントン州ケープ・アラバに漂着し、アメリカ先住民マカ族に救助された。西海岸にあったハドソン湾会社の交易所フォート・バンクーバーへ引き取られ、イギリス経由でマカオに送られている.

■ Hudson's Bay Co. (British Trading Company, abbreviated HBC)
 Founded in London on May 2, 1670 with a Royal Charter from King Charles II, HBC was given a monopoly over the fur trade with Native Americans. It controlled the fur trade in a large part of North America called the Rupert's Land from the headquarters at York Factory on the south coast of Hudson Bay. It has kept its fur trade until 1957, and still is one of the oldest and most successful commercial corporations in Canada.
 Otokichi, Iwakichi and Kyukichi left Onoura, Aichi Pref., Japan in October 1832 on the Hojun-maru and were washed ashore near Cape Alava, presently in the state of Washington, after 14-month drift over the North Pacific Ocean. They were picked up by the Makah, a Native tribe, and lived with them for several months.
 In May 1834, the chief trader of Fort Vancouver of HBC, Dr. John McLoughlin (1784-1857), who is now remembered as the 'Father of Oregon', bought them from the Makah. Hoping to open a trade with Japan by returning the three ship-wrecked Japanese to their home country, he put them on the HBC ship, the Eagle, which sailed from Fort Vancouver in November 1834 to London via Honolulu. They arrived at London in early June 1835, and after spending several days on the ship with a day of sightseeing on land in that great city, the three Japanese were put on the General Palmer and reached Macao in late December 1835. They were transferred from the care of HBC to the British commission in Macao.
■ 上海ジャーデン・マゼソン商会(英)
 香港にヘッドオフィスを置くイギリス系企業グループの持株会社。創設から170年たった今日でも、アジアを基盤に世界最大級の国際複合企業として影響力を持っている。前身は東インド会社で、元は貿易商社。1832年、スコットランド出身のイギリス東インド会社元船医で貿易商人のウィリアム・ジャーディンとジェームス・マセソンにより、中国の広州に設立された。
 1859年、上海支店にいたイギリス人ウィリアム・ケズィック(ウィリアム・ジャーディンの姉の子)が横浜(旧山下町居留地1番館、現山下町一番地)に「ジャーディン・マセソン商会」横浜支店を設立。日本に進出した外資第1号としても知られる。後に吉田茂の養父・吉田健三が一時期、同社横浜支店長を勤めていた。

■ Jardine, Matheson & Co., Shanghai (British Trading Company)
 Founded in Canton in 1832 by two Scottish traders, former East India Company workers and marine doctors, William Jardine (1784-1843) and James Matheson (1798-1878), the company became the first private tea trader when the East India Company's monopoly with China ended in 1834. Its main office was forced to move to Macao in 1839 and later to Hong Kong in 1844. In those years the company was heavily involved in the opium trade.
 In 1859, William Keswick, son of William Jardine's elder sister, who was working at its Shanghai Branch, established its Yokohama Branch at 1 Foreign Settlement, Yamashita-cho (currently 1 Yamashita-cho). It was the first foreign trade company in Japan, and Mr. Kenzo Yoshida, stepfather of former Premier Shigeru Yoshida, was the Branch Manager for some time.
■ 上海デント商会(英)
 「デント商会(宝順洋行)」、「ギブ・リビングストン商会(仁記洋行)」、「ラッセル商会(旗昌洋行)」などのイギリスとアメリカの商社がいる一方、中小の地元商社やアジアからの商社などが雨後の竹の子のように増え続けた。
欧米の商社が業務を拡大し、取引金額が増えるに従い、なにより頭を悩ませたのは資金の安全な輸送方法だった。イギリス流の解釈では、「イギリスが中国から資金を取り戻す」ための安全で迅速な手段が必要とされたのである。
よいアイデアはすぐに浮かんだ。銀行の設立である。
 1865年3月、「サッスーン洋行」、「ジャーディン・マセソン商会」、「デント商会」らは15人の代表発起人を決め、資本金500万ドルを投じて香港に「香港上海銀行(HSBC)」を設立した。サッスーン・グループのアーサー・サッスーンら8人が理事会役員に就任し、1ヶ月後には上海で営業を開始した。
「香港上海銀行」の最大の業務は、阿片貿易で儲けた資金を安全かつ迅速にイギリス本国へ送金することであった。

  音吉は1837年英国の船モリソン号に乗せられて日本に近寄るが、江戸湾と鹿児島で砲撃を受け、帰国できずに大陸に戻る。英語、オランダ語、中国語など語学の才を見せた音吉は(ジョン・M)オトソンと名乗り、デント商会(中国名宝順洋行)の社員として活躍を始める。

 阿片で隆盛のジャーディン・マセソン商会をライバルとして、阿片は扱わず、高麗人参、生糸などで高い収益を上げる。この仕事には、船乗りとしての物品管理の才能、中国人・現地頭目らとの交流が効果的であった。イギリス人女性との結婚と長女の誕生があったが、いずれも早世した。1849年英国砲艦マリナー号は江戸湾測量を目的として、日本に行くが、オトソンはその通訳として同行する。伊豆・船上での役人との会合はあったが、帰国の意思も既になく、上海支店長として活躍する。太平天国の動乱の最中、上海と香港、シンガポールをまたにかけてデント商会の業績を上げる。1854年にはイギリス極東艦隊司令官・スターリング元帥の通訳として長崎に来航、22年ぶりに故国への上陸を果たし、長崎奉行水野忠徳との交渉を経て、米国に続く日英和親条約調印に貢献した。その後、デント商会を辞任し、二番目の妻ルイーザの故郷シンガポールへ移住した。シンガポールでは、妻の親族の名を冠したベッカー&ベルダー商会の共同出資者として、また、自身はスパイスなどを扱う貿易商として、イギリス植民地総督公邸の向かいに広大な邸宅を構えるほど成功した。

■ Dent & Co., Shanghai (British Trading Company)
 In 1823 Thomas Dent came to Canton and established Davidson & Co. with Davidson. Upon Mr. Davidson's departure from the company in 1824, its name was changed to Dent & Co. Thomas Dent left the company in 1831, and Lancelot Dent succeeded him as the senior partner. In 1841 the headquarters were moved to Victoria City, Hong Kong. Its main items for trade were tea, silk, ginseng, and opium (in early years only).
 The Shanghai Branch was founded in 1843 at 14 the Bund, and Otokichi was hired as one of the key officers. Its main items for trade were silk, tea, and ginseng. He married a British woman and had a baby girl, both of whom died early. The tombstone of the girl, Emily Louisa Ottoson, is still found, next to that of Mary Gutzlaff, wife of missionary Gutzlaff, at Fort Canning Cemetery in Singapore, and the inscription on the surface says she "died 11th November 1852, aged 4 years 9 months and 6 days".
 During those prime years as businessman for Dent & Co., Otokichi was probably baptized as Christian with a name John Matthew Ottoson, and established himself as a very honest and capable business person. He was asked to go to Japan as interpreter by Captain Matheson of HMS Mariner to do survey around Uraga and Shimoda ports (May 14 - July 2, 1849). On this trip Otokichi, disguised as a Chinese called Lin A-Tao, met and talked with Japanese officers, and his physical features and the only drawn picture were recorded by the Japanese.
 In 1854 he was again asked to serve as interpreter for Admiral James Stirling of HMS Winchester, and was released from the company for the expedition (in Nagasaki from Sept. 7 to Oct. 20, 1854). Otokichi played a very important role when the first formal Anglo-Japanese agreement was concluded on Oct. 14, 1854, after a series of verbal and critical negotiations between Admiral Stirling and Tadanori Mizuno, Magistrate of Nagasaki office. The treaty was similar to the Treaty of Peace and Amity between the United States and the Emperor of Japan (signed on March 3, 1854), headed by Commodore Perry.
 Later in January 1862 Otokichi left Dent & Co., and moved to Singapore, home to his wife Louisa. He established himself as a successful trader-businessman, as a co-investor to Becker, Belder & Co., in addition to carrying his own business dealing with spices. His house stood on a large ground on the Orchard Road across the official residence of the Colonial British Governor-General (currently the Official Residence of the President). On December 20, 1864 he was granted the British citizenship, the first Japanese Singaporean. He died there on Jan. 18, 1967, and was buried at a Christian Cemetery on the next day, just a year before the Meiji Era began.
■ 鄭観応〔てい かんおう〕
 清末から中華民国初めにかけての思想家・実業家。別名は官応。字は正翔、号は陶斎、羅浮待鶴人、慕雍山人、杞憂生など。洋務運動期の清の近代企業設立や経営に携わった。
 広東省香山(現在の中山市)出身。読書人の父から教育を受け童試を受けるが失敗し、父から上海に行き商売を学ぶように命じられる。1860年、イギリス資本のデント商会で働き、英語を学んで西洋の政治と経済について理解を深めた。1874年、スワイヤー・グループが太古輪船公司を設立するのに関わった。1880年に『易言』を著し、西洋から商業を学び、立憲君主制を採用するように提言した。同年、直隷総督李鴻章から上海機器職布局と上海電報局の総裁に任命される。1883年には輪船招商局の総裁に昇進したが、翌年に辞任した。辞任後はマカオに閑居して『易言』の改訂に専念し、その成果は後に『盛世危言』としてまとめられている。1891年に開平煤砿局総裁に起用され、翌年には再び輪船招商局総裁となった。中華民国成立後は、教育事業に力を注いだ。

■ Tei, KaN-ou (1842-1922; Cheng kuan-ying; Chinese thinker and businessman)
 Cheng is well-known as an early modern thinker, who advocated China employ Western scientific technology to make it stronger. He was also a successful businessman. He lived in the last years of Ch'ing dynasty into the early years of the People's Republic of China.
 Born in the prefecture of Canton and taught by a well-read father, but Tei failed in the national examination, he was sent to Shanghai to study business in 1858. In 1860s he worked for the British Dent & Co. (where Otokichi also worked) as a comprador, learning business skills as well as the English language.
 In 1884 he became a comprador for the Swire & Co. group, also became president of the Swire Shipping Co., and founded a private bank. On the other hand, in 1880s he was promoted to the higher ranks in the government and actively participated in the reform movement. He retired in 1884, moved to Macao and wrote several influential books.
(Source: http://www.zs.gov.cn/japanese/lishi/view/index.action?did=1290&id=70822)
■ ポーター商会
 イギリスの貿易会社で、函館で最も大きい貿易商であった。

■ Porter & Co., Hakodate (British trade company)
 A. P. Porter came to Hakodate in 1868 and founded Porter & Co. on the foreign settlement (currently Nakahama-cho) as a commission agent for the British, providing the fleet crew with food, water, coal, and other kinds of necessary services such as washing clothes, which made him a very successful merchant. For instance, on July 31, 1888 (21st year of Meiji), a British fleet of 12 warships, in addition to its flagship, with a total of 2,530 men, entered Hakodate and stayed there for about 2 months to enjoy the cool summer. In 1892 (25th year of Meiji) Porter handed his land leasehold over to Fujino Shirobei and left Hakodate the following year. (Source: History of Hakodate City (http://www.lib-hkd.jp/hensan/hakodateshishi/tsuusetsu_03/shishi_05-02/shishi_05-02-08-01-01.htm)
■ リュードルフ
 リュードルフはドイツの商人。
 安政2年4月3日、アメリカ艦隊の傭船グレタ号が入港した。同船はドイツ船で乗船していた商人リュードルフもドイツ人であったが、同船が入港できたのは、マストにアメリカの国旗を掲げていたからであった。リュードルフの来航目的は、アメリカ艦隊への必要物資の補給と箱館での通商にあった。
 また、リュードルフはオランダ語が堪能であった為に英文のオランダ語訳を依頼された。リュードルフは、これ以前にも既にイギリス船やアメリカ船と日本側役人との通訳を積極的に買って出ていたが、日米和親条約の条文解釈をめぐる日米交渉において、アメリカ側の重要なオランダ語通訳として活躍していくこととなった。

■ Luhdolf (German merchant)
 On April 3, 1855 (2nd year of Ansei) a German ship, the Greta, chartered by an American fleet with an American flag, entered Hakodate port. Luhdolf, a German merchant, proficient in Dutch and English, was on board the ship. He came to Hakodate to help the American fleet procure necessary items as well as to do some trade there for himself. He was often asked to translate the English documents into Dutch and was willing to interpret between Japanese officials and British and American visitors. He also played an important role as a Dutch interpreter for the Americans explaining some delicate wording of treaty articles between the U. S. and Japan.
■ オリファント商会(米)
 広東のアメリカ商社。
 1837年(天保8年)、社船モリソン号で日本人海難船員の岩吉、久吉、音吉、庄蔵、寿三郎、熊太郎、力松の7名を日本に送還し、その機会に日本との貿易ならびにアメリカ海外宣教団の日本布教の端緒を開こうとした。そして同船は同年7月マカオを出帆し、鹿児島湾、浦賀沖に来航。しかし、薩摩藩及び浦賀奉行は異国船打払令に基づき砲撃を行った。

■ Olyphant, (Talbot) & Co. (American trading company)
 The company was formed in Canton in 1827 by two pioneers in the American trade with China, David W. C. Olyphant (1789-1851) and Charles N. Talbot. Its offices were called "Zion's Corner" because the firm refused to deal in opium. The company provided free passage in their ships for tens of Christian missionaries to China and free quarters for the mission in Canton. It also supported the printing work including the printing of the monthly Chinese Repository (1832-51), and built and transported Gospel ships such as the Morrison and the Himmaleh.
 The Morrison was the ship that carried Samuel W. Williams, a life-long friend of Otokichi, from New York to Canton in 1833, and it was also employed to try to return Otokichi and other shipwrecked sailors to Japan in 1837, but the ship was fired away by the Japanese government under the strict seclusion law.
 The Himmaleh was the ship that carried the manuscript of John's Gospel and his three letters in Japanese to Singapore at the end of 1836 and brought back the printed copies back to China in the summer of 1837.
 The son of David W. C. Olyphant, Robert Morrison Olyphant (named after the first missionary to China), joined his father's firm in 1842, and reorganized the firm in Canton in 1858 to deal with general importing, shipping, commission, and mercantile business with East Asia. Faced with many rival firms the amount of profits of the company became smaller and smaller and it finally closed its business in China in 1878.
(Sources: The New York Times, December 9, 1878;
http://www.crwflags.com/Fotw/flags/us~hfo.html#olyphant, 2010/04/21.)
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日本人 宣教師
官僚・武士・外交官 商人・会社
■ ラナルド・マクドナルド
 アメリカ合衆国オレゴン州アストリアに白人とインディアンの混血児として生まれた。
 1847年の秋日本に憧れて捕鯨船プリマス号に乗り込み日本に向かう。1848年利尻島に上陸。長崎に護送されて7ヶ月監禁される。この間、森山栄之助らオランダ通詞に英語を教える。此の地で日本人に初めて英会話を教え、それが日本の英語教育の飛躍的な向上の基礎になった。
 長崎に入港していたアメリカ船プレブル号(英語版)に引き渡され、そのままアメリカに戻った。日本での日本人によるマクドナルドの扱いは終始丁寧なもので、マクドナルドも死ぬまで日本には好意的だった。帰国後は日本の情報を米国に伝えた。日本が未開社会ではなく高度な文明社会であることを伝え、のちのアメリカの対日政策の方針に影響を与えた。

■ Ranald MacDonald (1824-1894; American)
 Ranald was born in 1824 between Archibald MacDonald, a white chief trader-factor of the Hudson's Bay Co., and Princess Sunday of a native tribe Chinook, who died soon after Ranald's birth, at Astoria (later called Fort George) at the mouth of Columbia River in the present state of Oregon, U. S. A. For a few years he was taken care of by his grandmother Com-Comly until his father remarried to Jane Klyne, a German-Swiss.
 During the years between 1828 and1833 his family was stationed at Fort Langley on the Northwest Coast, and Ranald frequently visited Fort Vancouver, one of the main centers of the Columbia fur trade. He and his younger brothers were taught at home by his well-educated father, but in the winter of 1833-1834 Ranald attended the first school in the Pacific Northwest at Fort Vancouver but in 1834 he was sent to the Red River Missionary School at Fort Garry, 3,200 kilometers eastwards from home beyond the Rockies.
 After four years of study, Ranald worked for two years for the Upper Canada Bank in the state of Ontario, Canada, but he didn't like the banking business, quit the job and started a life of adventure!
 The Hojun-maru was washed ashore near Cape Alava in the winter of 1833-1834, and Otokichi and two others were living with the natives at a Makah village until May 1834, when they were rescued by the Hudson's Bay Company. So, Ranald probably had left Fort Vancouver before Otokichi arrived there, and the two hardly met each other, but Ranald must have heard of the story of the Japanese shipwreck sailors, for HBC officers had tried to reach them for a couple of months before.
 Traders along the Northwest Coast knew other Japanese and/or Chinese shipwrecks arriving on their shores and that Japan had a strict law that no foreigner except Dutch and Chinese traders could visit Japan, nor any Japanese, once out of Japan, could return home. Ranald knew these stories and became interested in Japan even from his childhood.
 In 1845 he went to New York and was hired as a seaman on the whaler Plymouth, and, when the ship came close to Japan, he left the ship in a small boat and pretended he was in a shipwreck. On July the first, 1848, he landed on Rishiri Island off Hokkaido and was taken to the official as an illegal foreigner. Finally in October he was sent to Nagasaki and imprisoned for about 7 months until he was put on board the American warship Preble with other shipwrecked Americans in April 1849.
 While he was in prison in Nagasaki he taught English to the Dutch interpreters at Nagasaki, one of them being Takichiro (or Einosuke) Moriyama, who later played a very important role as a senior interpreter for Japan when the Treaty of Peace and Amity between the U.S. and Japan (Kanagawa Treaty) was signed on March 31, 1854.
After Ranald left Japan, he visited India, Australia, Africa and European countries, and always spoke about Japan in friendly terms. He died in 1894 near Toroda post office in Ferry County, state of Washington. (Sources: Ranald MacDonald: the Narrative of his Life, 182401894. Annotated and Edited by William S. Lewis & Naojiro Murakami,1990, Oregon Historical Society.)
■ 森山栄之助
 江戸時代に活躍した日本の通詞(通訳)。
 家は代々オランダ通詞を務めていた。1848年、偽装漂着のアメリカ人ラナルド・マクドナルドから本格的に英語を学び、蘭・英2カ国語を使いこなせる通詞として活躍する。嘉永3年(1850年)には「エゲレス語和解」の編集に従事し、嘉永6年(1853年)のプチャーチン来航の際は川路聖謨の通詞として活躍する。また、オランダの地図に樺太の日露国境が北緯50度線となっていることを発見する。これが、日本の対露国境の根拠となる。
 1854年のマシュー・ペリー来航の際も通訳を務め、その後江戸小石川に英語塾を開く。862年には開港延期問題で渡欧した竹内保徳遣欧使節団の通訳としてオールコックと同船でイギリスに赴き、使節一行とロンドンで合流する。その後、各国を巡り帰国。帰国後は通弁役頭取、外国奉行支配調役などを歴任すると共に、1860年の大統領への英文書の作成にも活躍する。

■ Moriyama, Einosuke (1820-1871; Japanese interpreter)
 Born in Nagasaki in 1820 in a family of Dutch interpreter for generations, he became one of the most prominent interpreters of Dutch and English in the last years of Edo Period. He was trained to be an interpreter since early childhood, and served as an apprentice in his early teens. He came to learn English in addition to Dutch as it was written of him in 1845 when an American ship Manhattan entered Uraga that "Moriyama understands English a little, but was good at gestures."
 In 1848 when Ranald MacDonald was sent to Nagasaki, Moriyama and 13 other Dutch interpreters studied English with him for about 7 months. In 1850 to 1851 Moriyama worked as one of the editors of an English dictionary. He soon came to be known as very proficient in English and the 33-year-old Moriyama was promoted to be a senior interpreter in 1853, who interpreted for Governor Kawazu Toshiakira when a Russian fleet under Vice Admiral Putiatin entered Nagasaki.
 In 1854 when Perry visited Kanagawa in January, Moriyama was sent there from Nagasaki as the head interpreter, and the Treaty of Peace and Amity between the United States and the Empire of Japan (Kanagawa Treaty) was signed on March 31.
 On September 7 in the same year the British East Indian fleet under Admiral James Stirling entered Nagasaki with Otokichi as interpreter in order to get permission to enter ports of Japan looking for Russian ships, because Britain and Russia were fighting in the Crimean War (1853-56). During the meetings between Britain and Japan, Moriyama interpreted for Governor Mizuno Chikugonokami and Otokichi for Admiral Stirling. However, Moriyama spoke on his knees hardly looking up, but Otokichi stood straight by Stirling and spoke directly to the Governor Mizuno. On October 14 the first Anglo-Japanese Convention, similar in content with that of Kanagawa Treaty, was signed.
 Moriyama moved to Edo and met American Consul Harris and helped concluding Ansei Commercial Treaty between the Shogunate and the United States, the Netherlands, Russia, Great Britain, and France (Ansei Commercial Treaty of 1858). He also taught English at his own school in Edo. In 1862 he was asked to go to England with Alcock (British Consul General) to join there with a group of Takenouchi Mission to Europe asking, in vain, for delays in opening Japanese ports. Later he was promoted to various kinds of higher ranks in the foreign office, but left the office when the Meiji Era began. He died in 1871 in Yokohama at age 51.
■ オールコック(英)
 イギリスの医者、外交官。
 
清国駐在領事、初代駐日英国総領事、同公使を務めた。
 幕末の駐日英国外交官。ロンドン郊外イーリングに生まれる。外科医師となり、1832年から4年間英国軍医として各地に勤務、のち極東に関心を抱き、1844年清国に渡り、福州領事、上海領事を歴任。1858年12月21日駐日総領事に任命され、1859年6月26日江戸高輪(たかなわ)東禅寺に着任、同年12月1日駐日特命全権公使に昇格、列国公使の対日外交の主導的地位を占めた。1861年7月の第1回東禅寺事件など攘夷運動につき幕府にその制圧を求める一方、幕府の開市開港延期提案には同意し遣欧使節の派遣を勧告した。1862年3月賜暇帰国、1864年3月2日帰任、この年列国艦隊を率いて攘夷派の拠点長州を総攻撃したが、外相ジョン・ラッセルの承認が得られず12月24日解任され帰国した。1865年4月から1871年7月まで清国駐在特命全権公使を務め、退官帰国後は医事、文化、植民の業務に従い、1897年11月2日、ロンドンで死去した。

■ Alcock, Rutherford (1809-1897; British diplomat and medical doctor)
  Born in May 1809 at Ealing, near London and trained into the medical profession, Alcock worked at various places as an army surgeon from 1832 but retired from this service in 1837.
 He became interested in Asia and was appointed consul at Fuchow in China, one of the 5 ports opened to foreign trade by the 1842 Nanjin Treaty. He later became a consul at Shanghai where he played an important role to lay out the British settlement and promote British trade in China.
 In December 1858, he was appointed Consul-General in Japan, and, in June 1859, opened the first British legation on the grounds of Tozenji Temple at Takanawa, Edo (now Tokyo). In December 1859 he was promoted to ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary and took the leadership in diplomatic negotiations between Japan and other foreign countries. But one of the groups hostile to foreigners attacked the British legation in July 1861. In order to pacify such anti-foreign feelings and actions after the openings of ports and cities to foreigners under the 1858 commercial treaties, the Edo government sent the Mission to Europe in January 1862, headed by Takenouchi Yasunori, Foreign Affairs Commissioner, asking for a few years of delay in opening such ports and cities.
 Alcock, given a leave of absence for two years in March of the same year, joined the Japanese mission in London, but no treaty counties agreed to postpone the opening date for trade. He published The Capital of Tycoon: A Narrative of a Three Years' Residence in Japan (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1863) based on his experiences.
 Alcock returned to Japan in March 1864, and led the naval expedition by the Western powers against Choshu domain (now Yamaguchi Pref.) in retaliation for the attacks on foreign ships passing through the Shimonoseki Strait, but his action was not approved by the British Foreign Minister, and Alcock was transferred to Peking, where he represented the British government from April 1865 to July 1871. Even after retirement he was actively involved in the foreign affairs, and died in 1897 in London. He is also known as the first foreigner who climbed Mt. Fuji in 1860. (Main source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rutherford_Alcock
, 2015/03/02)
■ ハリー・パークス(英)
 英国の外交官で、幕末から明治初期にかけ18年間駐日英国公使を務めた。
 慶応元年(1865)3月、オールコックの後任として、駐日特命全権公使兼総領事に任命され、横浜に着任しするが、パークスは長崎から赴任地・横浜に向かう途中、長州藩に立ち寄って木戸孝允・伊藤博文・井上馨らと会見。
このときすでに長州支持を心に決めたという。
その後、薩摩藩にも接近。
 当時イギリスは未曾有の好況下にあって小英国主義をとった自由貿易主義の時代で、パークスは忠実かつ強硬に、本国政府の政策を実行した。
 同慶応元年9月、仏米蘭3国を誘って4国艦隊を兵庫沖に進出させ、改税約書の締結、条約勅許をかち取り、外国人の日本における地位および宿願の対日自由貿易を安全確乎たるものにした。
 最初パークスは表向き中立を保っていたが、フランス公使ロッシュが幕府との関係強化に努めていると知るや、高杉晋作・伊藤博文と会見、あるいは鹿児島を訪問するなど薩長2雄藩に接近する。
 薩長が使った新式のミニエー銃はパークスのはからいで調達されたものである。
 館員アーネスト・サトウと共に、天皇を頂点とし、雄藩を中心とする統一政権を樹立するという、変革コースの平和的実現に向かって対日政策を強力に推進、維新期の政局に大きな影響を与え、また明治政府に対し種々助言した。

■ Parkes, Harry Smith (1828-1885; British diplomat)
18 years as the British Consul in Japan from the last several years of Edo period to the 16th year of Meiji, 1865-1883)
 Born in Staffordshire, England and orphaned at the age of five, Harry was sent to Birmingham to live with his uncle and get education until June 1841, when he sailed for China to be with his two aunts, who ran a school and a home for the blind in Macao.
 One of his aunts, Mary Wanstall, married German missionary Karl Gutzlaff in 1834. In December of that year Gutzlaff, in addition to the missionary work, officially accepted a position as Chinese interpreter for British administrators, and a year later Otokichi and two other Japanese seamen arrived in Macao and placed under the care of British commission and Gutzlaff.
 On his arrival in Macao in October 1841, young Parkes lived in the same house or on the same lot with Japanese including Otokichi and became good friends. Parkes must have learned some Japanese, but he began to study Chinese and prepared for employment in the office of John Robert Morrison, secretary and first interpreter of Henry Pottinger, who was then British minister of plenipotentiary and chief superintendent of trade in China. Thus, he witnessed the signing of the Nanking Treaty between China and Britain after the Opium War (1839-1842) on 29 August 1842. This is how the Parkes' long career as a British diplomat began. He worked as interpreter, negotiator and consul at different ports opened by the Nanking Treaty and later by the Treaty of Tientsin. While he was Consul at Amoy in 1855, he went to Siam (Thailand) to conclude the first commercial treaty for the Kingdom of Thailand with a European country.
 In May 1865, Parkes succeeded Alcock as Her Majesty's Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary and Consul-General in Japan. On his way from China he dropped at Choshu domain (Yamaguchi Pref.), and talked with young reform-spirited men like Ito Hirobumi, and arrived at Yokohama in July. Later he visited Kagoshima and supported the reformers, which made him the target of assassination three times by the Tokugawa supporters. He survived and subsequently played an important role in organizing the unified structure of the Meiji government with the Emperor on top, similar to that of the Kingdom of Britain.
 In 1883 he was also appointed to be Minister to Korea and the United Kingdom-Korea Treaty was concluded. In the same year Parkes was transferred to Peking, and died of malarial fever there in March 1885.
■ 横浜鎖港使節団 田中廉太郎
横浜鎖港談判使節団(よこはまさこうだんぱんしせつだん)
 池田長発(筑後守)を正使、河津祐邦(伊豆守)を副使、河田熙(相模守)を目付とし、文久3年12月29日から元治元年7月22日にかけて(1864年2月6日〜8月23日)幕府がフランスに派遣した外交団である。第2回遣欧使節、池田使節団とも呼ばれる。
 使節団の目的は、開港場だった横浜を再度閉鎖する交渉を行うことであった。1863年6月25日には孝明天皇が攘夷勅命を発し、更に下関戦争や薩英戦争、フランス士官カミュ殺害事件等が起きて諸外国との軋轢も高まっていた。このような状況で、幕府は攘夷派を懐柔する為、江戸に近い横浜の閉鎖を計画するが、もとより達成不可能な任務であった。一行は1864年2月6日にフランス軍艦ル・モンジュ号で日本を出た。その後地中海を通って、マルセイユに入港した。
 パリに着いた一行は皇帝ナポレオン3世に謁見した。然し横浜の鎖港に関する交渉は、横浜を対日貿易・交渉の拠点と考えるフランスの抵抗にあい失敗に終わった。又長発自身も西欧の文明の強大さを認識して開国の重要性を感じ、交渉を途中で打ち切り、フランス政府とパリ約定を結び帰国した。
田中廉太郎
 遣外使節一行の随員が、さいごに音吉に会ったのは、1864年の横浜鎖港使節団(池田筑後守ほか)であり、同使節団に外国奉行支配調役として参加した田中廉太郎は、シンガポールにおいて音吉と会った。

■ Tanaka, Rentaro (Japanese, member of the 2nd Japanese Embassy to Europe, 1864)
 The purpose of the Second Japanese Embassy to Europe (Dec. 29, 1863-July 22, 1864), also called the Ikeda Mission, headed by Ikeda Nagaoki, was to obtain, from the treaty countries, an agreement to the closure of Yokohama port. In Paris they met the Emperor Napoleon III, but the French government regarded Yokohama to be the center of Japan trade and refused to agree to the proposal. It was the first country to visit, but the mission members felt it impossible to persuade other countries and returned to Japan in vain.
 Rentaro Tanaka (who was 37 years old) was a member of the mission and met Otokichi in Singapore, the last person to meet him alive on record.
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日本人 宣教師
官僚・武士・外交官 商人・会社
■ キング(米)
 アメリカ人のオリファント商会の共同経営者。
当時のヨーロッパ商人はほとんどアヘンを扱って利益を貪っていた中で、自分たちはアヘンを扱わないということを明言して、アヘン戦争のとき、キングは林則徐[りんそくじょ]のアヘン廃棄に立ち会っている。 そういう理想主義的な人であった。
 モリソン号という船は当時のアメリカの海外伝道会の宣教師たちがアジアへ来るときはほとんどその船で来ている。 その船にマカオにいた7人の漂流民を日本へ送り返そうと計画した。 宝順丸の岩吉、音吉、久吉の3人。 それから九州の庄蔵、寿三郎、力松、熊太郎の4人。 彼らは、ルソン島に漂着し、その後マカオへ送られてきた。

King, Charles William (1809−1845;American merchant, Manager of Canton Branch of Olyphant & Co.)
 The Canton Branch of Olyphant & Co. was founded in 1828, where King worked as one of the managers. On his way to New York from Canton, King met Sir Simpson, Canadian governor of the Hudson's Bay Co., heard about the story of the Hojun-maru and three Japanese survivors, who had been sent to Macao to wait for a ship to Japan.
 When King returned to Canton in November 1836, he was surprised to find the three Japanese still kept in Macao, supported by the British commission at Gutzlaff's house. Then King set up a plan to send the 7 Japanese by his company ship Morrison. He later wrote a detailed report on this trip, The Claims of Japan and Malaysia upon Christendom exhibited in notes of voyages made in 1837 from Canton in the ship Morrison and Brig. Himmaleh (2 vols., 1839). He proposed the American government to send a well-armed squadron to make Japan open her ports in order to exchange shipwrecked sailors and to secure necessary items for the ship travelling to Asian countries. He also hoped that Japan would become a free and civilized country through the teachings of Christianity. .
 It was widely known around the world that the Olyphant & Co. under King was the only company that refused to deal with opium. On April 12, 1839 when the great amount of opium was burnt and the smoke filled the sky on the beach about 50 kilometers from Canton, Mr. and Mrs. King were invited by Lin, the head official of the matter, to watch the scene along with American missionaries Bridgman and Williams. He is also well known as an author of a letter stating how the opium trade was damaging the people and countries, Opium Crisis: A Letter Addressed to Charles Elliot, Esq. (1839).
■ カール・ギュツラフ(独)
  中国で活躍したドイツ人宣教師である。現存する最古の日本語訳聖書「ギュツラフ訳聖書」を翻訳した人物として知られる。
ベルリンの宣教師養成学校で学んだ、ロンドン宣教会(英語版)の宣教師として、タイで伝道したのちに、中国大陸で伝道活動に従事する。
1832年8月に、琉球国の那覇に寄港した。その時集まった民衆と役人に、漢訳聖書を配布した。琉球王尚氏に、三冊の漢訳聖書を贈呈した。
中国に戻ったギュツラフは、日本人の三人の漂流水夫(音吉、岩吉、久吉)を引き取り、日本語を学んだ。ヨハネの福音書とヨハネの手紙第一第二第三を翻訳した「ギュツラフ訳聖書」をシンガポールで出版した。
1837年7月にギュツラフとウィリアムズ宣教師らはモリソン号に乗り、音吉ら3人と、薩摩の漂流民4人(庄蔵、寿三郎、熊太郎、力松)を合わせた、漂流民7人を送り届ける目的で日本上陸を試みた。しかし、異国船打払令により幕府側が砲撃をしたので、やむを得ず引き換した。これが、モリソン号事件である。

Gűtzlaff, Karl (1803-1851; German [Prussian] missionary to the Far East, also interpreter for the British foreign offices, and translator of the Bible [portions] into a dozen languages)
 His full name was Karl Friedrich August Gűtzlaff, but was widely known as anglicized Charles Gutzlaff. He was born in Pomerania, Prussia (now Germany), educated in the Berlin Mission Institute, where he was convinced of the truth of Christian faith, and further studied for three years at the seminary of the Netherlands Missionary Society. In 1826 he was sent to Java as a missionary by the Society, but left the Society after two years and began to work freely with missionaries sent by a variety of Protestant groups from Britain, the United States and others.
 He was remembered as a genius at learning languages, and, in addition to German, Latin, Greek, Hebrew, English, he soon acquired Chinese, Malay and other Asian languages. In 1829 he married Maria Newell sent by the London Missionary Society, and they translated the Bible into Thai, and worked on a dictionary and grammar of Thai, Cambodian and Lao.
 When his wife died of childbirth in February 1831, Gutzlaff moved to Macao and took several voyages along the China coasts, sometimes on board of opium boats, distributing Christian tracts and giving Christian messages in villages for three successive years, and he also visited Korea and Ryukyu (Okinawa) in 1832. The records of these trips were published in 1834 as the Journal of Three Voyages along the Coast of China in 1831, 1832 and 1833, with notices of Siam, Corea, and the Loo-Choo Islands (London: Frederick F. Westley & A. H. Davis).
 In December 1834 he became Chinese interpreter for British administrators succeeding the late Robert Morrison, and Otokichi, Iwakichi and Kyukichi arrived at Macao from London a year later. The three Japanese were taken to the British office, and were put under the care of Gutzlaff, who had seen some Japanese sailors at Ryukyu before and became very interested in the Japanese language and the people. While they were waiting for a suitable boat to return the three Japanese to Japan, Gutzlaff worked every day except Sunday with the Japanese natives in translating the Gospel of John into Japanese. This work must have continued most of the year1836, as the manuscript of John's Gospel and His three Epistles was sent to Singapore to be block printed on December 5, 1836 by the Himmaleh. In August 1837 the same boat, after a long missionary trip to the Borneo and other islands, carried the printed version back to China.
 In March 1837 four other shipwrecked Japanese men from Kyushu were sent to Macao and placed at the Gutzlaff's house. Finally C. W. King's plan was adopted to return the seven Japanese to Japan. Instead of a British warship, one of the American merchant ships the Morrison of the Olyphant & Co. was to be used. On board were Mr. and Mrs. King, Doctor Parker, missionary-printer Samuel Williams, Ingersoll as captain, 7 Japanese and a crew, totaling 38 persons. Gutzlaff joined them at Naha, Ryukyu port.
 They left Macao on July 4, visited Naha on the way, but on July 31 when the boat approached Uraga near Edo, the unarmed Morrison was fired upon in accordance with the Tokugawa government's order forbidding all foreign vessels to enter Japanese seas, and again on August 10 it was fired upon at Kagoshima Bay, and the ship returned to Macao on August 29 in vain. This is what is called the "Morrison Incident" in Japan, and it was one of the reasons for the U.S. to forcefully demand Japan to open her doors.
 When the Japanese came back to Macao, some worked for the British office under Gutzlaff, and others at the mission press under Williams who studied Japanese for two years and translated two Books of the Bible into Japanese, Genesis and the Gospel of Matthew. Williams' knowledge of Japan and the Japanese language was the reason why Commodor Perry asked him to go to Japan as his interpreter/secretary in 1853 and 1854.
 During the Opium War (1839-1842), Gutzlaff played the key role as interpreter/translator as well as negotiator between the British and the Chinese administrators, and finally the war ended upon the signing of the Nanking Treaty which forced China to open 5 ports for foreign trade. In August1843, Gutzlaff was appointed as Chinese secretary to the British Hong Kong government, but his missionary work for the Chinese people never ended until his death in 1851 at the age of 48. He was buried at Hong Kong Cemetery. When his wife died of sickness earlier in Singapore in 1849, it is said that Otokichi, who happened to be there on his business trip, buried her at Fort Canning Park. (Source: Opening China: Karl F. A. Gutzlaff and Sino-Western Relations, 1827-1852, by Jessie Gregory Lutz, 2008)
■ S・W・ウィリアムズ(米)
 ウィリアムズは、1837年アメリカ人宣教師グループによる日本人難破船員の祖国送還の努力(いわゆる「モリソン号」事件)に加担した。
 首席通訳官としてペリー提督を助け1854年の日米和親条約(神奈川条約ともいう)の締結に貢献したことおよび1858年にいち早くアメリカの新教三団体に日本における布教活動の早期開始を促したことなどによって、日本の物理面での開国および精神面での開国の過程で重要な役割を果たした。そして、幸いなことに、彼は1872年の3度目の来日でこれらの劇的変化の様子をこの目で確認できた。
 ウィリアムズは、1833年アメリカン聖書協会の宣教師として広東に到着。伝道印刷所の責任者として活動したが、禁教のため迫害を受け、1835年マカオに移住。そこでギュツラフと親交を結び、彼の家に預けられていた日本漂流民とも知り合った。ウィリアムズは漂流民たちを日本に送還する名のもとに日本宣教や通商のためモリソン号にて浦賀を目指したが幕府の打払令により上陸できなかった。
 寄港後日本漂流民ら5名をしばらくの間引き取った後、天草漂流民の庄蔵ら3名を印刷所で働かせ、彼らから日本語を学び聖書の和訳を行い、でき上がったのが『馬太福音伝』である。
 布教活動をしながら漢学者および外交官として中国で約40年の歳月を過ごした。日本の開国に対する彼の貢献は、彼の漢文読解の能力および彼が雇った中国人通訳の漢文作成能力があってはじめて可能になったことである。

Williams, Samuel W. (1812-1884; American missionary-printer, diplomat, Chinese scholar)
 Born into a very religious family, Williams was interested in botanical and mineral sciences as a young student, but when he was asked to go to China to take charge of the printing press of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions (ABCFM) he willingly accepted the offer. After learning the printing, binding and publishing business at his father's printing office in Utica for about 6 months, Williams left New York on board the Morrison of the Olyphant & Co. in June 1833 and arrived at Canton in October of the same year.
 He immediately began to study Chinese without dictionary or grammar, but no Chinese persons were allowed to teach the language to foreigners, or no books in Chinese were to be published by the foreign press. So, his Chinese teachers visited Williams as if they were tailors or shoemakers, etc. In 1835 Williams was moved from Canton to Macao where there was more freedom, and reports and articles in English about China and other Asian countries were published in Macao and carried by visiting boats to all over the world.
 In June 1836 Kyukichi, one of the shipwrecked seamen from Owari, was sent, probably by Gutzlaff, to Williams and the two talked about how the Hojun-maru was wrecked and the three survivors had come to live in Macao. Williams spent about two months (July and August) of 1837 with the seven Japanese on board the Morrison to and from Japan. He wrote a detailed account of the failed attempt to return the Japanese to their home in the Chinese Repository (Vol. 6, 1837, pp. 209-229, 353-380).
 Back in Macao Williams studied Japanese (as well as Chinese) with two or three Japanese and translated Books of Genesis and Matthew into Japanese in 1838 and 1839. In February 1939, Mr. and Mrs. Brown stayed with Williams for 7 months and they, also, came to know a little Japanese. The Browns left New York on the Morrison, and arrived at Macao in February 1839 to become president of the Morrison School in Macao (later moved to Hong Kong). Mrs. Brown's illness forced the couple to leave Hong Kong in 1846, but as soon as they heard that Japan opened her doors to foreign countries, they left their successful hospital work and came to Japan as missionaries in 1859. Mr. Brown played one of the key roles in translating the Bible into Japanese.
 Williams published several books on the Chinese language, such as Easy Lessons in Chinese, for those who wanted to study Chinese. In 1844 he returned to the U.S. via Syria, Egypt and Europe, and gave several lectures on China, which was published as The Middle Kingdom in 1847. He married in late 1847, and returned to China the next year, and resumed chief editorship of the Chinese Repository.
 In 1853 and 1854 he was asked to visit Japan by Commodore Perry as interpreter, and, while in Japan, he seemed to be well liked by Japanese as 'megane no uiriyamusu' (Williams in spectacles) or 'Tadashi San' (Mr. But!) because he often used tadashi (but) when he spoke Japanese. This expedition was summarized in A Journal of the Perry Expedition to Japan (1853 - 1854) by S. Wells Williams (edited by his son Frederick W. Williams, 1910).
In 1855 Williams left the ABCFM and began to work for the American government as Secretary of the U.S. Legation to China, Chinese Interpreter, and Charge d'Affaires. In 1858 he visited Nagasaki with the U.S. Consul Reed, and there he wrote letters to three mission boards in New York to send missionaries to Japan, in response to which Hepburn, Brown and Liggins came to Japan in the following year. On October 26, 1858 he gave a lecture in Shanghai on his recent visit of Japan telling how Japan had changed. Was Otokichi among the audience?
 In 1875, after serving for the U.S. Legation in various ways for 21 years, Williams resigned his post of Secretary of Legation in China, and left China on October 25, 1876, after spending exactly 43 years there.
 In an article published in 1876, The Chinese Recorder and Missionary Journal, (Vol. VII, No. 6, p. 396) Williams wrote "He [=Rikimatsu from Kyushu] and Otosan [=Otokichi], who lived at Shanghai, both showed in their correct lives that the faith which they had professed was a living principle. They were the first fruits of the church of Christ in Japan..."
 Back in New Haven, he became Professor of Chinese Language and Literature at Yale University in addition to serving as President of the American Bible Society and other positions. He revised The Middle Kingdom with a Map of the Chinese Empire, which stood as the crown of Chinese studies for decades to come. He died peacefully in 1884.
Bridgman, Elijah Coleman (1801-1861; first American missionary to China, editor and Chinese scholar)
 Bridgman was born in Belchertown, Mass., graduated from Amherst College in 1826 and Andover Theological Seminary in 1829. As soon as ordained as the first American missionary to China by the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions (ABCFM) in October 1829, Bridgman left New York aboard the Roman of the Olyphant & Co. ship and arrived at Canton in February1830.
 Immediately Bridgman began to study Chinese under the limited circumstances posed by the Chinese government, and in May 1832 he founded a mission press and started as editor and contributor of the Chinese Repository (a monthly magazine written in English from May 1832 to December 1851) with the purpose "to collect and present to the public the most authentic and valuable information respecting China and the adjacent countries" dealing with the history, culture, literature, and current topics of the area. This magazine was widely read all over the world as the precious source of knowledge of these closed countries in Asia. Samuel W. Williams joined him in this work from 1833 as co-editor and as chief editor from 1848 after Bridgman moved to Shanghai.
 Because nothing written in the Chinese language was allowed to be printed in Canton, Bridgman sent Chinese block cutters to Singapore, where several of Gutzlaff's translation of the Bible (portions) in Chinese and Japanese were published. From 1839 to 1841 during the Opium War Bridgman worked at Macao and witnessed, together with King of the Olyphant & Co., how the great amount of opium was consumed in fire.
 In addition to translating the Bible into Chinese (with Medhurst, Gutzlaff, and John R. Morrison), Bridgman translated a history of United States of America for the Chinese, and wrote a Chinese chrestomathy to help those who want to study Chinese. He acted as President of the Morrison Education Society, named after the first missionary to China, since its beginning in 1835 till his death in Shanghai in 1861 at age 60. (Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elijah_Coleman_Bridgman, 2012/04/25)
■ ベッテルハイム
 日本に派遣されたキリスト教宣教師。また沖縄県地域最初のプロテスタント宣教師でもある。
 1846年4月30日に香港から琉球王国に到着し、那覇の護国寺を拠点に8年間滞在した。1848年12月8日に生まれた二番目の娘は、記録上沖縄本島で生まれた最初のヨーロッパ人と言われている。
 1854年マシュー・ペリーが来琉した時、琉球の言語と文化についての知識からペリーのもとで働き、その船舶でアメリカ合衆国に渡った。アメリカではシカゴやニューヨークにおいて長老派牧師として活躍していたが、南北戦争では北軍の軍医(少佐)として参加した。ミズーリ州ブルックフィールドにて肺炎で死去した。

Bettlelheim, Bernard J. (1811-1870; British missionary to Ryukyu [=Okinawa])
 Bettelheim was born in today's Bratislava, Slovak Republic in 1811 into a Jewish family, and, after studying at various schools in Europe, he earned a degree in medicine from a school in Italy in 1836. While practicing medicine in a number of places, he began to study Christianity in Turkey in 1840 and decided to become a Christian.
 Then he moved to London, looking for a Christian Mission which would send him as a missionary to convert Jews into Christianity. Meanwhile in London he met some missionaries working in China (Dr. Peter Parker and Karl Gutzlaff) and Africa (David Livingstone), was naturalized as a British citizen, and married a British woman.
 Finally, the British Loochoo [spelled as it was then] Naval Mission sent Bettelheim to Ryukyu (Okinawa), and the family left Portsmouth in September 1845. On his way he arrived in Hong Kong in January 1846, where he met Gutzlaff and a few shipwrecked Japanese working for him at the British Legation. Bettelheim's son was born there who was named Bernard James Gutzlaff Bettelheim. Bettelheim learned some Chinese and Japanese from them before he left for Okinawa in April.
 The family arrived at Naha, the main port town of Okinawa, on the last day of April 1846, but they were treated as if they were criminals, and placed on the Gokoku-ji Temple compound with little freedom. They were not allowed to talk to the locals or walk round the town freely. In spite of these severe living conditions forced by the government, he learned the language, wrote several short Christian tracts, and translated four Gospels, Books of Acts and the Romans into the Okinawan (now classified as a Japanese dialect which still embodies the old proto-Japanese features). His second daughter, remembered as the first European to be born in Okinawa, was named Lucy Fanny Loochoo Bettelheim on December 8, 1848.
 When Commodore Perry stopped at Naha on his way to Japan for the first time in 1853, Bettelheim shared his knowledge of Ryukyu culture and people, and of the relationship between Ryukyu and the Edo governments. When the Perry Expedition came to Napa for the last time, in April 1854, after having concluded the Kanagawa Treaty on the last day of March, Bettelheim helped Perry in concluding "the Compact between the U.S. and the Royal Government of Loo Choo" signed in English and Chinese at Naha in July 1854.
  Bettelheim and his family left Ryukyu with the Perry Expedition. His translation of the Bible portions was printed in 1855 at Hong Kong, and his family settled in the U.S. Later he worked as a Presbyterian pastor in Chicago and New York, and even participated in the Civil War (1863) as an army surgeon fighting against the Confederate States. He died of pneumonia in Brookfield, Missouri in 1870 at age 59. (Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bernard_Jean_Bettelheim, 2015/3/10)
■ レオン・ド・ロニー
 1837年4月5日、フランス・ノール県ルース(Loos) に生まれる。父・祖父共に有名な学者であった。当初植物学者を志したが、やがてコレージュ・ド・フランスで中国語の研究に没頭する。さらに、独力で日本語の研究を開始した。1854年、17歳のときに、日本に関する最初の著作である「日本語研究に必要な主要な知識の概要」を発表した。
 1862年に文久遣欧使節がフランスを訪問した際にはその通訳を務めただけでなく、一行がフランスを出国した後も同行した。この間、福澤諭吉や福地桜痴と親交を重ねた。しかし、1864年に横浜鎖港談判使節団が訪仏した際には、政府から日本人との接触を禁じられた。使節団の正使であった池田長発は、江戸幕府がロニーを雇用することを提案しているが、これは実現しなかった。
1863年、フランス国立東洋語学校で、日本語を教え始めた。東洋語学校に独立した日本語の講座が設立されたのは1868年のことであるが、ロニーはその初代教授となった。
1867年のパリ万国博覧会では科学委員となった。1867年から翌年にかけて、幕府の特使として栗本鋤雲がパリに滞在していたが、この間にロニーと深い接触があった。
1873年に第一回の「東洋学者国際大会(Congres International des Orientalistes)」が開催され、ロニーはその議長を務めた。第一回の会議の目的は、日本語のアルファベットへの転写方法の研究、科学の発展及び現状に関する日本と西洋との比較、日本と西洋間の科学協力の開始であった。この会議は、それまで外交・通商関係しかなかった日仏両国間に学術上の交流をもたらすきっかけになったと考えられている。なお、この会議はその後も2、3年おきに開催されている。
1886年、オート・ゼチュードの副校長に任命され、以降は東洋の宗教や仏教の講義を主に行なった。
1914年8月28日、死亡。
フランスの日本研究の第一人者であったが、生涯一度も日本を訪れることはなかった。

Léon de Rosny (1837-1914; French ethnologist and specialist in Oriental languages)
 In 1852 Rosny studied at l'École imperiale and specialized in oriental languages, especially Chinese and Japanese. In 1853, at age 16, he was received as a member of Asian Society and by the Oriental Society of France in the following year.
In February 1854, when asked to give a sample of Japanese, Rosny transcribed chapters one and two of Gutzlaff's translation of John's Gospel and of John's Second Letter. In 1856 he published an introduction to the study of Japanese.
 In 1862, when the first Japanese Mission to Europe was visiting France, he worked as interpreter for the group, and even after they left Paris to visit other countries, Rosny followed the Japanese team and befriended with Yukichi Fukuzawa and others. In 1863 he began to teach Japanese at the Institut national des Langues et Civilisation orientales and stayed there for the next 40 years, writing several books on Japanese. He is called the first Japanologist in France but never visited Japan. He died in 1914 at age 77. (Source: http://wikipedia.org/wiki/L%C3%A9on_de_Rosny, 2015/03/18)
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日本人 宣教師
官僚・武士・外交官 商人・会社
■ Kyukichi (Japanese seaman from Onoura, wrecked with Otokichi)
 Kyukichi, a year older than Otokichi, while he was under the British commission's care in Macao, also helped Gutzlaff translate John's Gospel into Japanese. Samuel W. Williams wrote in his diary dated June 25, 1836 that Kyukichi was sent on an errand to him (probably from Gutzlaff carrying some portions of translated work). Williams asked many questions in English, and Kyukichi told him in 'broken' English the story of shipwreck and the travel they had had via Hawaii and London to Macao.
 After the Morrison's failed trip to Japan in 1837, Kyukichi was placed under the care of Gutzlaff and Williams at least for two years in Macao, teaching Japanese and working for the mission press. Williams wrote that five of them used to pray at his house for two years.
■ Iwakichi (Japanese head seaman from Nagoya, Aichi Pref., wrecked with Otokichi)
 Iwakichi, head seaman and the oldest of the three Hojun-maru survivors, was trusted by two young boys Kyukichi and Otokichi. According to Williams' record of the visit aboard the Morrison to Japan in the Chinese Repository (Vol. 6: 209-229, 353-380, 1837), Iwakichi was 33 years old, Kyukichi 20, and Otokichi 19. While he was under Gutzlaff's care in Macao, he also helped Gutzlaff translate John's Gospel into Japanese. After the Morrison's failed trip to Japan in 1837, he was placed under the care of missionaries at least for two years in Macao, teaching Japanese and working for the mission press. Later he moved to Hong Kong, and lived in a house next to Rikimatsu at least around 1853.
■ 寿三郎
  江戸時代の漂流民。肥後国玉名郡坂下の出身。
 1834年同国出身の庄蔵の船で天草を出航し長崎へ向かうが、途中嵐に遭って庄蔵ら3名とともにルソン島へ漂流する。その後現地で保護を受けて、1837年スペイン船でマカオに移り、同じくアメリカに漂流していた音吉ら3名と合流する。同年、帰国するためにアメリカ商船のモリソン号で浦賀へ向かうが、異国船打払令によって撤退。続いて薩摩山川港では庄蔵と上陸を果たすが、結局帰国は叶わなかった。その後はマカオでミッション印刷局の責任者ウィリアムズの元で働き庄蔵と余生を送り、嘉永ころまでには没したという。

Jusaburo (Japanese seaman from Tamana-gun, Nagasaki Pref.)
 In December 1834 Jusaburo (who was about 25 years old) and three other seamen (Shozo at age 28, Kumataro at 28, and Rikimatsu at 16) were shipwrecked in the severe storm on their way from Amakusa to Nagasaki. The ship owned by Shozo drifted for 35 days and washed ashore on an island of Luzon (the Philippines). They were picked up and eventually sent to Macao by a Spanish ship. They were also taken to the Gutzlaff's house and met the three shipwrecked seamen from Owari (Aichi Pref.) in March 1837.
 In July 1837 the seven Japanese were put on board the Morrison of the Olyphant & Co. to be sent home, but under the strict Japanese law of seclusion from foreign countries except the Netherlands and China, the Morrison was bombed away from Edo Bay. At their second attempt to return the Japanese at Kagoshima Bay, both Shozo and Jusaburo negotiated with the local officers, but they were again bombed away.
 After the Morrison's failed trip to Japan in 1837, Jusaburo was placed under the care of missionaries for many years in Macao, working for the mission press under Williams with Shozo. Jusaburo wrote a letter to his family probably in the fall of 1841 and was delivered to Nagasaki by the chief Dutch officer in the following year, which had been handed over to him by Gutzlaff at Macao.
■ 庄蔵
 江戸時代の水主・漂流民。肥後国飽託郡川尻の出身。
 1834年自らが船頭を務める船で天草を出航し長崎へ向かうが、途中嵐に遭って寿三郎ら船員3名とともにルソン島へ漂流する。その後現地で保護を受けて、スペイン船でマカオに移り、同じくアメリカに漂流していた音吉ら3名と合流する。同年、帰国するためにアメリカ商船のモリソン号で浦賀へ向かうが、異国船打払令によって撤退。続いて薩摩山川港では寿三郎と上陸を果たすが、結局帰国は叶わなかった。その後はマカオで伝道印刷所の責任者ウィリアムズのもとで働き余生を送り、開国後の日本でマカオに来る日本人と交流したという。

Shozo (Japanese, captain of the ship from Kawajiri, Nagasaki Pref., wrecked off Nagasaki)
 In December 1834 the freighter owned by Shozo was wrecked in a severe storm on the way from Amakusa to Nagasaki. Shozo and three other seamen were washed ashore on the island of Luzon (the Philippines). The four seamen were picked up by the local people and were eventually sent to Macao by a Spanish ship. They were taken to the Gutzlaff's house and met the three shipwrecked seamen from Owari (Aichi Pref.) in March 1837.
 In July 1837 the seven Japanese were put on board the Morrison of the Olyphant & Co. to be sent home, but under the strict Japanese law of seclusion from foreign countries except the Netherlands and China, the Morrison was bombed away from Edo Bay. On their second attempt to return the Japanese at Kagoshima Bay, both Shozo and Jusaburo negotiated with the local officers, but they were again bombed away.
 After the Morrison's failed trip to Japan in 1837, Shozo was placed under the care of missionaries for many years in Macao, working for the mission press under Williams. Williams learned Japanese from Shozo, a mature and educated person, and translated the Books of Genesis and Matthew into Japanese with him.
 Shozo's letter, addressed to Mr. Chaya at Kawajiri, Nagasaki, was delivered to Nagasaki by the head of Dutch Merchant Office in 1842. The letter told about the shipwreck in 1834, the way how they had come to live in Macao, the Morrison's failed attempt to return home, and finally the current life in Macao.
Rikimatsu (Japanese seaman from Shimabara, Nagasaki Pref., wrecked with Shozo, and worked for the British commission under Gutzlaff for many years)
 One of the three sailors on board the freighter owned by Shozo, Rikimatsu was shipwrecked in 1834 on their way from Amakusa to Nagasaki, washed ashore on the island of Luzon (the Philippines), picked up by the local people, and eventually sent to Macao by a Spanish ship. The four men from Kyushu were taken to the Gutzlaff's house and met the three shipwrecked seamen from Owari (Aichi Pref.) in March 1837.
 In July 1837 the seven Japanese were put on board the Morrison of the Olyphant & Co. to be sent home, but under the strict Japanese law of seclusion from foreign countries except the Netherlands and China, the Morrison was bombed away from Edo Bay. On their second attempt to return the Japanese at Kagoshima Bay, Shozo and Jusaburo negotiated with the local officers, but the ship was again bombed away.
 After the Morrison's failed trip to Japan in 1837, Rikimatsu and other shipwrecked Japanese were placed under the care of missionaries for several years in Macao. But after the Opium War when Hong Kong was ceded to Britain, in 1843 Gutzlaff was appointed as British Chinese Secretary of Hong Kong office, and Rikimatsu probably went there with him, working for the British Legation.
 In 1854 Rikimatsu was asked to work as interpreter to Commodore Elliot's squadron to watch over the Russian warships in the north of Hokkaido. They visited Hakodate and later Nagasaki in September 1855. Admiral Stirling was also there to exchange the ratified Anglo-Japanese Convention signed in the previous year. Admiral Stirling asked Rikimatsu to move to his flagship to interpret for him when he discussed, with the Japanese party, concerning the understandings of these written articles. On October 19 the detailed clarifications were agreed upon by both parties and the written version was exchanged, and Stirling left Nagasaki the following day for China.
 Thus, two shipwrecked seamen, Otokichi and Rikimatsu, witnessed the finalizing of the first formal agreement between the Great Britain and Japan. Both of them are mentioned by Samuel Williams later in 1876 that they "both showed in their correct lives, that the faith which they had professed was a living principle. They were the first fruits of the church of Christ in Japan..." (Chinese Recorder and Missionary Journal, Vol. VII, No. 6, Nov.-Dec. 1876: 396).
■ Kumataro (Japanese seaman from Kyushu, wrecked with Shozo)
 One of the four sailors on board the freighter owned by Shozo, Kumataro was shipwrecked in 1834 on their way from Amakusa to Nagasaki, washed ashore on the island of Luzon (the Philippines), picked up by the local people, and eventually sent to Macao by a Spanish ship. The four men from Kyushu were taken to the Gutzlaff's house and met the three shipwrecked seamen from Owari (Aichi Pref.) in March 1837.
 In July 1837 the seven Japanese were put on board the Morrison of the Olyphant & Co. to be sent home, but under the strict Japanese law of seclusion from foreign countries except the Netherlands and China, the Morrison was bombed away from Edo Bay. On their second attempt to return the Japanese at Kagoshima Bay, Shozo and Jusaburo negotiated with the local officers, but they were again bombed away.
 After the Morrison's failed trip to Japan in 1837, Kumataro and other shipwrecked Japanese were placed under the care of missionaries for several years in Macao. Kumataro probably worked for the mission press under Williams, who wrote to his father dated January 26, 1839 about workers at his printing office, a Portuguese compositor, a Chinese lad, and a Japanese "who knows nothing of English, Portuguese, or Chinese...."
■ ジョセフ・彦
 浜田 彦蔵は幕末に活躍した通訳、貿易商。「新聞の父」と言われる。洗礼名はジョセフ・ヒコ。
栄力丸に乗り換えて江戸に向かう航海中、その船が10月29日(11月22日)に紀伊半島の大王岬沖で難破。2ヶ月太平洋を漂流した後、12月21日(1852年1月12日)に南鳥島付近でアメリカの商船・オークランド号に発見され救助さ、サンフランシスコに着く。
 1852年ほかの乗組員と共に香港に送られるが帰国のめどがたたぬまま同輩2人と共にアメリカへ帰り後援者を得て教育を授けられ、アメリカ市民権を得る。
 
なお、栄力丸船員の多くは、同じくモリソン号事件関係者で上海定住していた日本人・音吉に匿われ、後に清国船で長崎経由の帰国に成功している。開国後の1859年に帰国、領事館通訳などを経て186年最初の民間邦字新聞『海外新聞』を創刊、明治に入ってから各種の事業も経営した。

Joseph Heco (1837-1897; Japanese-American interpreter, trader, and 'father of newspaper')
 His boyhood name was Hikotaro Hamada, but he is commonly remembered by the Christian name, Joseph Heco or by his nickname Ame-Hiko (< American Hikozo). A few years after his father's death, his mother remarried to a seaman and his mother also died when he was 12.
 His stepfather was a warm-hearted man, who sent him to a temple school for education, and took the 13-year-old Hikotaro on a sightseeing tour of Edo aboard the Eiriki-maru in November 1850. On their way home, the ship was wrecked in a severe storm, and, after drifting on the Pacific Ocean for about two months, the crew of 17 were rescued by the American freighter Auckland and were taken to San Francisco in February 1851. In March 1852 they left San Francisco on board the Saint Mary for Macao, where they were to join the Commodore Perry Expedition to be taken to Japan. On the way the head seaman Manzo died in Hawaii and was buried there.
 At Macao the crew were transferred to the Susquehanna, one of the Perry Expedition ships, but Perry didn't come as scheduled. A few days later the ship left Macao and arrived at Hong Kong on May 20, 1852, where they stayed for a few weeks.
 One evening Rikimatsu, one of the seven Japanese on a failed trip to Japan on the Morrison, visited them and introduced himself in Japanese saying that he was from Shimabara, Bizen (now Nagasaki Pref.), and invited them to visit him at home. Rikimatsu was then working for the British Hong Kong office, was married with an American woman, and had 3 children. After listening to his story, the Eiriki-maru crew became uneasy about returning home on an American warship.
 Hikotaro (later called Joseph Heco) and two other Japanese seamen decided to go back to the U.S. and arrived at San Francisco in the beginning of winter of 1852. Three of them began to work to support themselves. In June next year Hikotaro met Mr. Sanders, head of San Francisco Customs House, and began to work at his office. Mr. Sanders took Hikotaro to his home in Baltimore in August. Hikotaro was introduced to the 14th President Pierce in Washington, D. C. He attended a Catholic school for about 6 months in the spring semester of 1854, and, after spending the summer at Mrs. Sanders' mother's farm, was baptized as Joseph Heco on October 30th in Baltimore. In late November Mr. Sanders returned to San Francisco with Heco, who attended a school for about a year.
 Due to Mr. Sanders' financial trouble, in 1856 Heco had to quit the school and find a work. While working for a company Heco met a certain politician called Mr. Gwinn, who took him as secretary to New York and introduced him to the 15th President Buchannan on November 25, 1857. When Heco got the news that Japan had opened her doors to foreign countries, he wanted to go back to Japan. Following the advice of several friends that a Christian wouldn't be allowed to return home, he decided to be naturalized as an American citizen, and the Certificate of Naturalization was issued on June 30, 1858 to Joseph Heco. He arrived in San Francisco in late July 1858, and left there in September, arriving at Hong Kong in April 1859.
 While Heco was in Shanghai, he met two diplomats on their way to Japan, Mr. Harris as U.S. envoy and Mr. Dorr as Consul and decided to work as interpreter for them. In the afternoon of May 30, he visited Dent & Co., met Otokichi, usually called Ottosan, and heard how Otokichi helped most of his former Eiriki-maru crew members return to Nagasaki safely in 1855.
 Mr. Harris' group arrived at Nagasaki in mid-June 1859, and Heco worked as interpreter for the U.S. Legation. But Heco, as an American and a baptized Christian, felt that the movement advocating reverence for the Emperor and the expulsion of foreigners in those days was not friendly to him, resigned the job, and returned to the U.S. There he was again introduced to President Lincoln in March 1862, which means Heco shook hands with three Presidents.
 In October of the same year he returned to Japan and engaged in a variety of enterprises, including establishing a trading firm, writing an autobiography, publishing a newspaper, etc. He died in Tokyo on December 12, 1897 at age 60, and was buried at Aoyama Cemetery for foreigners.
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